In the bladder removed surgically and opened here can be seen a large urothelial carcinoma. These neoplasms arise from the urothelium. A presenting sign can often be hematuria. Cytologic examination of urine can reveal malignant cells shed from the surface of the neoplasm. Cystoscopy can be performed and biopsies taken.

Characteristic urinalysis findings are shown below.



Macroscopic Urinalysis:

CharacteristicResult
ColorAmber
AppearanceHazy
Leukocyte EsteraseNeg
NitriteNeg
pH5.0
ProteinTrace
Blood2+
Specific Gravity1.020
KetonesTrace
GlucoseNeg
BilirubinNeg

Microscopic Urinalysis:

CharacteristicResult
WBC/hpf <2/hpf
RBC/hpf 10-30/hpf
Casts Occasional hyaline casts
Other Atypical urothelial cells present