NeuroLogic Examination Videos and Descriptions: An Anatomical Approach
NeuroLogic Examination Videos and Descriptions...
an Anatomical Approach
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Neuroanatomy Online Tutorial: HyperBrain
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Go to IntroductionINTRODUCTION TO THE NEUROLOGIC EXAM VIDEOS AND DESCRIPTIONS

MENTAL STATUS EXAM
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CRANIAL NERVE EXAM

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COORDINATION EXAM
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SENSORY EXAM
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MOTOR EXAM
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GAIT EXAM
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The Procedure and CSF Analysis

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Neuroanatomy Video Lab: Brain Dissections
by Suzanne S. Stensaas, Ph.D.

SECTIONS
All videos have permanent, superimposed "open captions." 
01 - Introduction video
02 - The Normal Unfixed Brain video
03 - Orientation: The Planes of the Brain video
04 - The Meninges video
05 - The Ventricles video
06 - The Spinal Cord & Monosynaptic Reflex video
07 - The Unfixed Spinal Cord video
08 - Cranial Nerves video
09 - Brain Stem & Reflexes video
10 - Cerebral Circulation video
11 - Cortical Localization video
12 - Three Critical Vertical Pathways video
13 - Two Important Pathways: Somatic Sensation video
14 - The Most Important Pathway: Motor Control video


MOVIES CAN BE VIEWED ONLINE, OR DOWNLOADED FOR LATER VIEWING.
see "How to use this Site"
see "Movie Download Instructions"

The Brain Dissection movies are many minutes long. Be patient as they load for online viewing.

 


01- Introduction
(14 minutes)
The regions and lobes of the brain are identified along with some of the nerves and vessels. The basic functions of the cortex of each lobe are introduced along with principal sulci and gyri. The importance of the left hemisphere for language and the temporal lobe in memory are mentioned along with the concept of cortical localization. A classical frontal section is used to demonstrate gray and white matter along with the primary internal structures.



02 - The Normal Unfixed Brain
(6 minutes)
The consistency and vulnerability of the brain is demonstrated along with the clear and glistening pia and arachnoid and the tough dura. The cushioning function of the CSF is stressed and the features are pointed out on the ventral surface. The uncus and temporal lobes are normal with arteries free of atherosclerosis.


03 - Orientation: The Planes of the Brain
(8 minutes)
Terms such as anterior, posterior, inferior and superior are introduced with respect to the hemispheres as well as the brain stem. Terms such as rostral and caudal or dorsal and ventral can mean different things in different areas. Sections in three planes (frontal, axial, and sagittal) are demonstrated on gross specimens along with key features including the ventricular system.


04 - The Meninges
(15 minutes)
The epidural, subdural and subarachnoid spaces are demonstrated and discussed with respect to trauma and disease. The relationship of the brainstem and cerebellum to the tentorium demonstrates the vulnerability of the brain stem to increased supratentorial pressure and herniation. Arachnoid granulations and the sagittal sinus are shown. A subdural hematoma specimen as well as sections from a ruptured aneurysm complete the demonstration.



05 - The Ventricles
(27 minutes)
The ventricles are demonstrated and named on a model cast as well as in rotating 3D reconstructions. The production, function, circulation and removal of CSF produced by the choroid plexus is discussed using a diagram and then reviewed on frontal, axial and sagittal brain specimens and corresponding MRIís. The blood CSF and brain barriers are mentioned along with the cisterns.



06 - The Spinal Cord & Monosynaptic Reflex
(17 minutes)
The spinal cordís relationship to the foramina, discs and spinal nerves is demonstrated on a model. The dura, ganglia and rootlets are shown as well as the gray and white matter in gross sections at different levels. A model of the cord is used to demonstrate and describe the anatomy of a monosynaptic reflex and the concept of a dermatome. Finally, a myelin stained cord section is described and related to the gross demonstration.


07 - The Unfixed Spinal Cord
(7 minutes)
The delicate and soft cord partially covered with dura is seen with the anterior and posterior spinal arteries and a description of the structures they supply. The dural sac is opened showing the dorsal and ventral roots in the cauda equina.




08 - Cranial Nerves
(12 minutes)
The approach is to learn to associate the cranial nerves with their brainstem level and blood supply. Emphasis is given to the midbrain (3, 4), pons (5, 6, 7, 8), medulla (9, 10, 11, 12) and their most important functions.




09 - Brain Stem & Reflexes
(25 minutes)
The cranial nerves are reviewed again on a specimen with vessels. Next, landmarks on gross brain stem sections are shown. Stressed are the three reflexes associated with each of the three levels: pupillary, corneal and gag reflexes and their associated cranial nerves. Finally cross sections of myelin stained brain stem sections at classic levels are related to the gross cross sections.



10 - Cerebral Circulation
(16 minutes)
The major vessels of the anterior and posterior circulation are demonstrated along with the Circle of Willis on both a model and in an animation. The distribution of the three major cerebral arteries is demonstrated along with the concept of a watershed zone. A gross specimen with good vessels is also reviewed along with a quick review of primary cortical function.



11 - Cortical Localization
(13 minutes)
The lobes of the brain are defined together with their major functions. The visual field representation in the occipital lobe is explained with a diagram. Speech areas and the major types of aphasia are discussed in the dominant hemisphere and parietal lesions of neglect and spatial orientation are also mentioned. A frontal or coronal section is also outlined demonstrating the somatotopic representation of the body in sensory and motor cortex.


12 - Three Critical Vertical Pathways
(9 minutes)
There is one motor and two sensory pathways that must be mastered. Pain and temperature from the body travel together and vibration and proprioception travel in another pathway each reaching perception in the cortex. Voluntary motor control starts in the cerebral cortex and connects with a motor neuron in the spinal cord or brain stem. Each of these pathways has a different crossing point which is important. With these 3 pathways and your 12 cranial nerves you can localize many diseases.


13 - Two Important Pathways: Somatic Sensation
(00:00)
(This movie is not yet available. Coming soon!)


NOT YET AVAILABLE:
COMING SOON!

 


14 - The Most Important Pathway: Motor Control
(7 minutes)
The origin of the corticospinal tract in the cerebral cortex is traced through gross sections of the hemisphere and brain stem to the spinal cord. Using an animation, the terms upper and lower motor neuron are defined and clinical signs and symptom listed.


 

 


 

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