ABOUT THIS WEBSITE...
The "NEUROLOGIC EXAM VIDEOS AND DESCRIPTIONS: AN ANATOMICAL APPROACH" uses over 250 video demonstrations with narrative descriptions in an online tutorial. It presents the anatomical foundations of the neurologic exam and provides examples of both normal and abnormal conditions as exhibited by patients. Use the Table of Contents on the left to access these tutorials, organized by type of exam.
The website combines the use of anatomical diagrams, live patient exams, video patient cases and self-evaluation tools to accomplish its educational goals. It utilizes clinical video patient cases as digital movie files that can be viewed online or freely downloaded for local repurposing.
This "Clinical Dissection of the Nervous System: An Internet Accessible Tutorial" for Medical Neuroscience is authored by the University of Nebraska Medical Center (Paul D. Larsen, MD) and the University of Utah School of Medicine (Suzanne S. Stensaas, PhD), with some section movies contributed by the Fundación Stern, Buenos Aires, Argentina (Alejandro Stern).
The presentations interweave the neurological examination with neuroanatomy, laying the foundation for clinical problem solving by...
- first, establishing the anatomical concept;
- second, demonstrating the problem solving method;
- then third, allowing active participation in applying the method.
Anatomy and pathology of the nervous system is understood by directly visualizing it. This is best accomplished by handling the brain (or model of the brain as the case may be) and dissecting or taking it apart for direct examination. The purpose (for the clinician) of understanding neuroanatomy and neurophysiology is to be able to use that knowledge to solve clinical problems.
The first step in solving a clinical problem is anatomical localization. So, if one cannot directly inspect the patient's brain, how is this localization accomplished? The "WINDOW TO THE PATIENT'S BRAIN" is the neurological examination. A neuro exam is a series of tests and observations that reflects the function of various parts of the brain. If the exam is approached in a systematic and logical fashion that is organized in terms of anatomical levels and systems, then the clinician is lead to the anatomical location of the patient's problem.
A complementary site attached to NEUROLOGIC EXAM is Neurologic Cases. In a step-by-step method, Neurological Cases allows the learner to practice anatomical localization of neurologic pathologies. The six steps are...
- (1) View the Case History;
- (2) View the Neurological Exam;
- (3) Select from the Checklist of Finding;
- (4) Localize the Level(s) of the Lesion;
- (5) Identify the damaged Structures; and
- (6) View the Case Discussion.
To access NeuroLogic Cases, use the link at the top of any web page in this site, or along the left-hand Table of Contents.
ABOUT VIEWING MOVIES...
ONLINE VIEWING OF MOVIES (requires QuickTime plugin):
Along with companion text, each of the 250 movies in the Neurologic Exam can be viewed online as a 640x480 size (some will be 640x360). Click a Blue button labeled "View Online" next to each movie to open a separate, floating window that displays the video. You must download QuickTime to view movies online.
If your web browser fails to display the movies
Each movie is Closed Caption in English (see below for instructions to turn captions ON or OFF.
(even after downloading QuickTime),
try a different web browser.
DOWNLOAD MOVIES (in a variety of formats):
If you prefer to download our movies for later viewing or for re-use, click a Blue button labeled "Download Video" next to each movie. A separate web page opens that offers three different video formats for each movie file:
- QuickTime, 640x480/640x360; High Quality MPEG-4, H.264 compression (good for Macintosh-based PowerPoint or Keynote presentation software), now captioned in English
- Windows Media, 640x480/640x360; High Quality WinMedia v9 compression (good for Windows-based PowerPoint presentation software).
- Mobile Devices & SmartPhones, MPEG-4 baseline compression for many portable devices.
- Some movies, such as the Neuroanatomy Video Lab: Brain Dissections, are also available in high-definition 1280x720 format.
ABOUT CLOSED CAPTIONS IN ENGLISH...
We are pleased to announce that as of November 2012 the QuickTime 640x480 versions of our movies now include closed captions in English. Complete instructions for turning captions ON or OFF are available from the page "HOW TO SHOW CLOSED CAPTIONS ." There is also a link in the left-hand side Table of Contents.
Summarized below is the quick version of the instructions for turning captions ON or OFF:
- VIEWING FROM THE WEBSITE (requires QuickTime Plugin): Any movie listed in a website page has two blue buttons: VIEW ONLINE "CC", and DOWNLOAD VIDEO.
If you click the VIEW ONLINE "CC" button, the movie opens in a new window. By default, the closed captions do not automatically show.
- Simply right-mouse-click anywhere over the movie itself.
- From the sub-menu that appears, select "SHOW CLOSED CAPTIONING." Wait a few seconds for the captions to begin.
- Some versions of the QuickTime plugin for web browsers may not reveal this sub-menu. Instead, you will see a small icon in the movie's player control bar that looks like a cartoon dialog bubble. Click this bubble and select "English CC" to turn the Closed Captions ON.
- Some movies indicate they are "without sound." In such cases, there are no captions.
- VIEWING AFTER DOWNLOADING A MOVIE: If you download the QuickTime version of our movies, the downloaded movie can be viewed directly in Apple's QuickTime Player, Apple iTunes, or a variety of other QuickTime compatible players. To reveal the closed captions:
- Select the player's menu item named either "VIEW" or sometimes "CONTROLS."
- Then select "SHOW CLOSED CAPTIONING" or "SUBTITLES>ENGLISH CC," depending on the player you are using.
- Please be sure you are not using Windows Media Player to display our captioned QuickTime movies. Our captions cannot be revealed when watching the movies with Windows Media Player.
- MOBILE DEVICES: Additional instructions for revealing closed captions in mobile devices, such as iPhones and iPads, are found on the page "HOW TO SHOW CLOSED CAPTIONS ."
A companion website to the Adult Neurologic Exam is the Pediatric Neurologic Exam, where the neurological examination of the pediatric patient is presented within the context of neurodevelopmental milestones for Newborns, 3 month-olds, 6 month-olds, 12 month-olds, 18 month-olds, and 2-and-a-half year-olds.
To access the Pediatric Neurologic Exam, use the link at the top of any web page in this site or along the left-hand side Table of Contents.
ABOUT NEUROANATOMY VIDEO LAB: BRAIN DISSECTIONS...
An additional resource has been added to the Neurologic Exam website in 2013. Suzanne S. Stensaas, Ph.D., shares her years of expertise and teaching experience by showing us dissections of the human brain and its structures that are important for understanding neurological principles and localization (deciding where in the brain a disease process is occurring).
There are 14 videos in the Neuroanatomy Video Lab: Brain Dissections, and they are found on their own web page within the Neurologic Exam website. To access the page, use the link at the top of this web page or along the left-hand side Table of Contents (under ADDITIONAL RESOURCES).
An Online Neuroanatomy Tutorial, called "HyperBrain," has also been linked to the Neurologic Exam website. It is designed as a supplement to textbook and class learning or as a lab substitute when human specimens, slides and models are not available.
HyperBrain includes thousand of images and hundreds of linked illustrated glossary terms, as well as movies, quizzes and interactive animations.
To access the website, use the link at the top of this web page or along the left-hand side Table of Contents (under ADDITIONAL RESOURCES).
An online tutorial, called "Lumbar Puncture: The Procedure and CSF Analysis," is available from Paul D. Larsen, M.D., The University of Nebraska School of Medicine.
This tutorial is a comprehensive overview of the procedures related to lumbar punctures and the followup analysis of the cerebralspinal fluid. Topics include:
- CSF Anatomy
- CSF Physiology
- Anatomy of LP
- LP the Procedure
- Pediatric Considerations
- CSF Lab Evaluation
- CSF in Selected Diseases
- Complications of LP
To access the website Lumbar Puncture: The Procedure and CSF Analysis, use the link at the top of this web page or along the left-hand side Table of Contents (under ADDITIONAL RESOURCES).