Pediatric NeuroLogic Examination Videos and Descriptions: A Neurodevelopmental Approach
Pediatric NeuroLogic Examination Videos and Descriptions...
a Neurodevelopmental Approach
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Paul D. Larsen, M.D.
University of Nebraska School of Medicine

Suzanne S. Stensaas, Ph.D.
University of Utah School of Medicine

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The "PEDIATRIC NEUROLOGIC EXAM: A NEURODEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH" uses over 145 video demonstrations and narrative descriptions in an online tutorial. It presents the neurological examination of the pediatric patient as couched within the context of neurodevelopmental milestones for Newborns, 3 month-olds, 6 month-olds, 12 month-olds, 18 month-olds, and 2-and-a-half year-olds. Use the Table of Contents on the left to access these tutorials.

In assessing the child’s developmental level, the examiner must know the age when key social, motor, and language skills are normally acquired. The normal neurological findings one would expect for a newborn are certainly different than a 2, 6 or 12-month-old infant.

Obtaining developmental milestones is an important reflection of the maturation of the child’s nervous system, and assessing development is an essential part of the pediatric neurological examination. Delay in obtaining developmental milestones and abnormal patterns of development are important indicators of underlying neurological disease.

This "Internet Accessible Tutorial for Medical Neuroscience in the Pediatric Neurologic Examination" is authoredby the University of Nebraska Medical Center (Paul D. Larsen, MD) and the University of Utah School of Medicine (Suzanne S. Stensaas, PhD).


ONLINE VIEWING OF MOVIES (requires QuickTime plugin):
Along with companion text, each of the 145 movies in the Pediatric Neurologic Exam can be
viewed online as a 640x480 size. Click a Blue button labeled "View Online" next to each movie to open a separate, floating window that displays the video. You must download QuickTime to view movies online.

DOWNLOAD MOVIES (in a variety of formats):
If you prefer to download our movies for later viewing or for re-use, click a Blue button labeled "Download Video" next to each movie. A separate web page opens that offers three different video formats for each movie file:

  • QuickTime, 640x480; High Quality MPEG-4, H.264 compression (good for Macintosh-based PowerPoint or Keynote presentation software, now captioned in English Closed Caption icon
  • Windows Media, 640x480/640x360; High Quality WinMedia v9 compression (good for Windows-based PowerPoint presentation software).
  • Mobile Devices & SmartPhones, MPEG-4 baseline compression for many portable devices.


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We are pleased to announce that as of November 2012 the QuickTime 640x480 versions of the movies now include closed captions in English. Complete instructions for turning captions ON or OFF are available from the page "HOW TO SHOW CLOSED CAPTIONS Closed Captions icon." There is also a link in the left-hand side Table of Contents.

Summarized below is the quick version of the instructions for turning captions ON or OFF:

  • VIEWING FROM THE WEBSITE (requires QuickTime Plugin): Any movie listed in a website page has two blue buttons: VIEW ONLINE "CC", and DOWNLOAD VIDEO.

    Viewing options for movies

    View Online Bigger CCDownload Movie

  • If you click the VIEW ONLINE "CC" button, the movie opens in a new window. By default, the closed captions do not automatically show.
    • Simply right-mouse-click anywhere over the movie itself.
    • From the sub-menu that appears, select "SHOW CLOSED CAPTIONING." Wait a few seconds for the captions to begin.
    • Some versions of the QuickTime plugin for web browsers may not reveal this sub-menu. Instead, you will see a small icon in the movie's player control bar that looks like a cartoon dialog bubble. Click this bubble and select "English CC" to turn the Closed Captions ON.
    • Some movies indicate they are "without sound." In such cases, there are no captions.
  • VIEWING AFTER DOWNLOADING A MOVIE: If you download the QuickTime version of our movies, the downloaded movie can be viewed directly in Apple's QuickTime Player, Apple iTunes, or a variety of other QuickTime compatible players. To reveal the closed captions:
    • Select the player's menu item named either "VIEW" or sometimes "CONTROLS."
    • Then select "SHOW CLOSED CAPTIONING" or "SUBTITLES>ENGLISH CC," depending on the player you are using.
    • Please be sure you are not using Windows Media Player to display our captioned QuickTime movies. Our captions cannot be revealed when watching the movies with Windows Media Player.
  • MOBILE DEVICES: Additional instructions for revealing closed captions in mobile devices, such as iPhones and iPads, are found on the page "HOW TO SHOW CLOSED CAPTIONS Closed Caption icon."



A companion website to the Pediatric Neurological Examination is the Adult Neurologic Exam: An Anatomical Approach, where the anatomical foundations of the neurologic exam are presented and examples of both normal and abnormal patient conditions are exhibited.

To access the Adult Neurologic Exam use link in the left-hand side Table of Contents.


A complementary site attached to Neurologic Exam is Neurologic Cases. In a step-by-step method, Neurological Cases allows the learner to practice anatomical localization of neurologic pathologies. The six steps are...

  • (1) View the Case History;
  • (2) View the Neurological Exam;
  • (3) Select from the Checklist of Finding;
  • (4) Localize the Level(s) of the Lesion;
  • (5) Identify the damaged Structures; and
  • (6) View the Case Discussion.

To access NeuroLogic Cases, use the link in the left-hand Table of Contents.


An additional resource has been added to the Neurologic Exam website in 2013. Suzanne S. Stensaas, Ph.D., shares her years of expertise and teaching experience by showing us dissections of the human brain and its structures that are important for understanding neurological principles and localization (deciding where in the brain a disease process is occurring).

There are 14 videos in the Neuroanatomy Video Lab: Brain Dissections, and they are found on their own web page within the Neurologic Exam website. To access the page, use the link in the left-hand side Table of Contents (under ADDITIONAL RESOURCES).


An Online Neuroanatomy Tutorial, called "HyperBrain," has also been linked to the Neurologic Exam website. It is designed as a supplement to textbook and class learning or as a lab substitute when human specimens, slides and models are not available.

HyperBrain includes thousand of images and hundreds of linked illustrated glossary terms, as well as movies, quizzes and interactive animations. 

To access the website HyperBrain, use the link in the left-hand side Table of Contents (under ADDITIONAL RESOURCES).


An online tutorial, called "Lumbar Puncture: The Procedure and CSF Analysis," is available from Paul D. Larsen, M.D., The University of Nebraska School of Medicine.

This tutorial is a comprehensive overview of the procedures related to lumbar punctures and the followup analysis of the cerebralspinal fluid. Topics include:

  • Indications
  • Contraindications
  • CSF Anatomy
  • CSF Physiology
  • Anatomy of LP
  • LP the Procedure
  • Pediatric Considerations
  • CSF Lab Evaluation
  • CSF in Selected Diseases
  • Complications of LP

To access the website Lumbar Puncture: The Procedure and CSF Analysis, use the link in the left-hand side Table of Contents (under ADDITIONAL RESOURCES).



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