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Tables for Learning Biochemistry

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Using Tables to Learn and Review

These tables were designed to review key points of a typical biochemistry course. They summarize, compare and contrast important processes. They are organized to make learning easier. They subdivide information so it is in smaller, easier-to-learn packets. Here is an example.

Where appropriate, we have compared and contrasted information or processes so you can see the common threads. This allows you to learn fewer things, and to apply those things more broadly.

The tables we made for you will help you to learn, but an even better learning technique is to make your own tables. That way, you will have done part of your studying while you think about the information as you design the tables. If you design your own, follow these rules.

Never have more than four items at the same level of subdivision
Always give your table a descriptive title.
The long list of table titles that follows allows you to search for a topic of interest with your browser's "Find" feature. All tables are graphic files (gif, to be specific), and each is small, typically only 8-12 kilobytes, so downloading will be fast.


Amino Acid Metabolism
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Lipid Metabolism
Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism

An interactive version of these tables, running under HyperCard, is avaliable as part of the Integrated Biochemistry Learning Series from Slice of Life.

Amino Acid Metabolism

Ways of converting an alpha amino acid to its alpha keto analog
Major controls of glutamate dehydrogenase
Summary of enzymes catalyzing incorporation of ammonia into or removal of ammonia from amino acids
The urea cycle
Catabolic products of the common amino acids: amino acids with N less than 3
Catabolic products of the common amino acids: amino acids with N reater than or equal to 3
Similarities among amino catabolic pathways leading to propionyl CoA
Amino acid synthesis in man: amino acids arising from alpha-ketoglutarate (TCA cycle).
Amino acid synthesis in man: amino acids arising from oxaloacetate (TCA cycle)
Amino acid synthesis in man: amino acids arising from glycolytic intermediates
Amino acid synthesis in man: other nonessential amino acids
Summary of one-step amino acid syntheses
Comparison of transmethylation and folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism
Comparison of methionine and choline in transmethylation
One-carbon fragments bound to tetrahydrofolate
Biochemical effects of phenylketonuria
Degradation of neurotransmitters
Summary of aromatic amino acid metabolism

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Bioenergetics Tables

Comparison of endergonic and exergonic reactions
Comparison of catabolism and anabolism
Some important types of bonds having a large negative standard free energy of hydrolysis
TCA cycle enzymes catalyzing reactions which consume or generate compounds of special interest
Important physiological modulators of pyruvate oxidation through the TCA cycle
Influence of physiological modulators on the phosphorylation state of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)
Some important mitochondrial membrane antiport systems
Shuttles for transporting the reducing equivalents of cytoplasmic NADH into the mitochondria
Comparison of the general properties of strong oxidants and strong reductants
Oxidation-reduction cofactors of electron transport
Comparison of oxidative phosphorylation and substrate level phosphorylation
Composition and function of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes
Effects of inhibitors and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation
Influence of the availability of substrate, oxygen and ADP upon mitochondrial oxygen utilization

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Carbohydrate Metabolism Tables

Glycolytic enzymes of special interest
Major physiological controls of glycolysis
Major physiological controls of hexokinase
Major physiological controls of phosphofructokinase
Major physiological controls of phosphofructo-2-kinase
Major physiological controls of pyruvate kinase
Comparison of mammalian hexokinase and glucokinase
Hexose monophosphate pathway enzymes of special interest
The gluconeogenic enzymes
Major physiological effectors of the gluconeogenic enzymes
Comparison of intracellular conditions favoring glycolysis to conditions favoring gluconeogenesis
Comparison of energy balance for glycolysis & gluconeogenesis
Major catabolic pathways for important monosaccharides other than glucose
Glycogen metabolizing enzymes of special interest
Major physiological controls of glycogen metabolism
Activation of glycogen phosphorolysis by the cascade (I)
Activation of glycogen phosphorolysis by the cascade (II)
Major physiological controls of glycogen synthase
Major physiological controls of glycogen phosphorylase
Major physiological controls of phosphorylase kinase
Major physiological controls of other enzymes involved in the cascade
Summary of phospho-dephospho proteins

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Lipid Metabolism Tables

Key enzymes of long chain fatty acid catabolism
Comparison of mitichondrial carnitine acyl transferases
Special oxidative mechanisms for handling the diversity of structure found in fatty acids
Similarities between beta-oxidation and the TCA cycle
Synthesis and utilization of ketone bodies
Fatty acid synthesis activities of special interest
Major physiological controls of acetyl CoA carboxylase
Comparison of acetyl CoA carboxylase in fatty acid synthesis to pyruvate carboxylase in gluconeogenesis
Comparison of beta oxcidation and fatty acid synthesis
Comparison of intracellular conditions favoring beta-oxidation to conditions favoring fatty acid synthesis
Energy balance for palmitate synthesis and beta-oxidation of palmitate
Processes for converting palmitate to other fatty acids
Comparison of triglyceride synthesis in intestine and other tissues
Pathways of phospholipid synthesis
Cholesterol synthesis enzymes of special interest

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Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism Tables

Purine and pyrimidine nomenclature
Degradation of purines and pyrimidines
Sources of ring atoms in purine and pyrimidine synthesis
Comparison of de novo synthesis of purines and pyrimidines in mammals
Coordination of adenylate and guanylate synthesis from inosinate
Major salvage pathways for purine and pyrimidine bases

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Last modified 10/8/97