This is a different kind of arteriosclerosis. This is hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis, which most often appears in the kidney in patients with hypertensive emergency ("malignant" hypertension) when systolic pressure is ≥180 and/or diastolic pressure ≥120 mmHg along with signs of acute or ongoing end-organ damage. The arteriolar wall is markedly thickened and the lumen is narrowed.

Arteriosclerosis, or "hardening of the arteries" is a generic term that includes atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and medial calcific sclerosis.