Multiple Sclerosis
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Reference Topics:

Treatment -- General

  1. Ellison GW, Myers LW, Mickey MR, et al. Clinicial experience with azathioprine: the pros. Neurology. 1988; 38 (supl 2): 20-23.

  2. Silberberg DH. Azathioprine in multiple sclerosis: the cons. Neurology. 1988;38 (suppl 2): 24-27.

  3. Rudick RA, Goodkin DE. Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis, Trial Design, Results, and Future Perspectives. London, England: Springer-Verlag; 1992.

  4. Carter JL, Hafler DA, Dawson DM, Orav J, Weiner HL. Immunosuppression with high dose IV cyclophosphamide and ACTH in progressive multiple sclerosis: cumulative 6 year experience in 164 patients. Neurology. 1988;38 (suppl 2): 9-14.

  5. Lisosky WH. Experience with cyclophosphamide in multiple sclerosis: the cons.Neurology. 1988; 38(suppl 2): 14-18.

  6. Bornstein MB, Miller A, Slagle S, et al. A placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized, two-center, pilot trail of COP-1 in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1991; 41: 533-539.

  7. Johnson KP, Knobler RL, Greenstein JL, et al. Recombinant human beta interferon treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1990; 40(suppl 1): 261.

  8. Canderbark AA, chou YK, Bourdette DN, et al. TCR peptides induce autoregulation in MS. Neurology. 1992; 42(suppl 3): 186.

  9. Hodgkinson S, Lindsey JW, Allegretta M, et al. Phase I study of chimeric anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1992; 42(suppl 3); 209.

Treatment -- Steroids

  1. Miller J, Newell DJ, Ridley A. Multiple sclerosis: treatment of acute exacerbations with corticotropin (ACTH). Lancet 1961;2: 1120-1122.

  2. Touretellotte W, Haerer A. Use of oral corticosteriods in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: A doouble blind study. Arch Neurol 1965;12: 536-545.

  3. Milligan NM, Newcoombe R, Comptson DAS. A double blind controlled trial of high dose methylprednidolone in patients with multiple sclerosis. Part 1. Clinical effects. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1983; 46:941-942.

Treatment -- Interferons

  1. Beck RW, Cleary PA, Anderson MM, et al. A randomizied, controlled trial of corticosteriods in the treatment of acute optic neuritis. N Eng J Med 1992;326: 581-588.

  2. Beck RW, Cleary PA, Trobj JD, et al. The effect of corticosteriods for acute optic neuritis on the subsequent development of multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 1993;329: 1764-1769.

  3. IFNB Multiple Sclerosis Study Group. Interferon beta-1b is effective in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1993;43:655-661.

  4. Jacobs LD, Rudick CR, Herndon R, et al. Results of a phase III trail of ontramuscular recombinant beta interferon as tratment for multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 36;2:259.

  5. Johnson KP. Experimental therapy of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with copolymer-1. Ann Neuro 1994;36(suppl):S115-7.

Treatment -- Copolymer-1

  1. Bornstein M. Miller A, Slagle S, et al. Clinical experience with COP-1 in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1988;33(suppl 2):66-69.

Treatment -- Immuno-suppressive

  1. Ellison G, Myers LW, Mickey MR, et al. Clinicial experience with azathioprine: the pros. Neurology 1988;38(suppl 2):20-23.

  2. Silberberg DH. Azathioprine in multiple sclerosis: the cons. Neurology 1988;38(suppl 2): 24-26.

  3. The Multiple Sclerosis Study Group.Efficacy and toxicity of cyclosporine in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinicial trail. Ann Neurol 1990;27: 591-605.

  4. Hauser SL, Dawson DM, Lehrich Jr, et al. Intensive immunosuppression in progress multiple sclerosis: a randomized, three-arm study of high-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide, plasma exchange and ACTH. N Engl J Med 1983;308: 173-180.

  5. Likosky WH. Experience with cyclophosphamide in multiple sclerosis: the cons. Neurology 1988; 38(suppl 2): 14-18.

  6. Weiner HL, Mackin GA, Orva EJ, et al. Intermittent cyclophosphamide pulse therapy in progressive multiple sclerosis: final report of the Northeast Cooperative Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Group. Neurology 1991: 41: 1047.

  7. Currier RD, Haerer AF, Meydrech EF. Low dose oral methotrexate treatment of multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1993; 56: 1217-1218.

  8. Goodkin DE, Rudick RA, Medendorp SV, et al. Low-dose (7.5 mg) oral methotrexate reduces the rate of progression in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 1995;33:40.

Treatment -- IVIG

  1. Achiron A, Pras E, Gilad R, et al. Open controlled therapeutic trail of intravenous immune globulin in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 1992;49:1233-6.


  1. Charcot Jm; Sigerson G, trans. Lectures on the diseases of the nervous system (delivered 1888). London: New Sydenham Society, 1877: 1st series, lect 6.

  2. Hashimoto SA, Paty Dw. Multiple Sclerosis. Dis Mon 1986;32: 523-89.

  3. McFarlin DE, MacFarland HF, Multiple Sclerosis. N. Engl J Med 1982; 30: 1183-1186.


  1. Koopmans RA, Li DKB, Grochowki E, et al. Benign versus chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: magnetic resonance imaging features. Ann Neurol 1989;25:74-81.

  2. Francis GS, Evans AC, Arnold DL. Neuroimaging in multiple sclerosis. Neurol Clin 1995;13:147-69.

  3. Rose JW. Digre KB, Lynch SG, et al. Acute Vith cranial nerve dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. J Clin Neuro Ophthalmol 1992;12:17-20.

  4. Jacobs L, Kinkel W, Polachin I, et al. Correlations of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography, and clnical profiles in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1986;36:27-34.

  5. Frank JA, Stone LA, Smith ME, et al. Serial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: implications for treatment trials. Ann Neurol 1994;36:S86-90.

  6. Khoury SJ, Guttmann CRG, Orag EJ, et al. Longitudinal MRI in multiple sclerosis: correlation between disabilityand lesion burden. Neurology 1994;44:2210-4.\

  7. Paty DW, Li DK, UBC MS/MRI Study Group, IFNB Multiple Sclerosis Study Group. Interferon beta-1b is effective in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Part 2. MRI analysis results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 1993;43:662-7.


  1. Compston A. The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis: principles, achievements, and recommendations. Ann Neurol 1994;36(suppl):S211-17.

  2. Kurtzke J. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis. In: Hallpike JF, Adams CWM, Tourtellotte WW, eds. Multiple sclerosis. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1983:49-53.

  3. Sadovnick AD. Genetic epidemiology of multiple sclerosis: a survey. Ann Neurol 1994;36(suppl 2):S194-203.


  1. Hillert J, Olerup O. Multiple sclerosis is associated with genes within or close to the HLA-DR-DQ subregion ona normal DR15, DQ6, Du2 haplotype. Neurology 1993;43:163-8.

  2. Phillips JT. Genetic susceptibility models in multiple sclerosis. In:Rosenberg RN, Prusiner SB, DeMauro S, et al, eds. The molecular and genetic basis of neurological disease. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993.

  3. Risch N. Linkage strategies for genetically complex traits. Part 1. Multilocus models. Am J Hum Genet 1990;46:222-8.
  4. Sadovnick AD, Ebers GC. Genetics of multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 1995;13:99-118.

  5. Sadovnick AD, Armstrong H, Rich GPA, et al. A population-based study of multiple sclerosis in twins: update. Ann Neurol 1993;33:281-5.

  6. Todd JA, Aitman TJ, Cornall RJ, et al. Genetic analysis of autoimmune type I diabetes mellitus in mice. Nature 1991;351:542-7.


  1. Allen IV, Kirk J. Demyelinating diseases. In: Adams JH. Ducher Lw, eds. Greenfieldís neuropathology, 5th ed. New York: Oxford Univ Press, 1992:447-510.

  2. Bruck W, Schmied M, Suchanek G, et al. Oligodendrocytes in the early course of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 1994;35:65-73.

  3. Allen IV. Pathology of multiple sclerosis. In:Matthews WB, ed. McAlpineís multiple sclerosis. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1991:341-78.

  4. Hofman FM, Hinton DR, Johnson K, et al. Tumor necrosis factors identified in multiple sclerosis brain. J Exp Med 1989;170:607-12.

  5. Lassman H, Suchanek G. Ozawa K. Histopathology and the blook-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 994;36 (suppl):S42-6.

  6. Raine CS, Scheinberg L, Waltz JM. Multiple sclerosis: oligodendroglia survival and proliferation in an active established lesion. Lab Invest 1981;45:534-46.

Immunology -- General

  1. Hohlfield R. Neurological autoimmune disease and the trimolecular complex of T-lymphocytes. Ann Neurol 1989;25:531-38.

  2. Burns J, Rosenzweig A, Zweiman B, et al. Isolation of myelin basic protein-reactive T-cell lines from normal human blood. Cell Immunol 1983;81:435-40.

  3. Burns J, Littlefield K, Gomez C, et al. Assessment of antigenic determinants for the human T cell response against myelin basic protein using overlapping synthetic peptides. J Neuroimmunol 1991;31:105-13.

  4. Richert JR, Robinson ED, Johnson AH, et al. Heterogeneity of the T-cell receptor beta gene rearrangements generated in myelin basic protein-specific T-cell clones isolated from a patient with multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 1991;29:299-306.

  5. Martin R, Howell MD, Jaraquemada D, et. al. A myelin basic protein peptide in recognized by cytotoxic T cells in the context of four HLA-DR types associated with multiple sclerosis. J Exp Med 1991;173:19-24.

  6. Sun J, Link H, Olsson T, et al. T and B cell responses to myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in multiple sclerosis. J Immunol 1991;146:1490-5.

  7. Xiao BG, Linington C, Link H. Antibodies to myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with multiple sclerosis and controls. J Neuroimmunol 1991;31:91-6.

  8. Baig S, Olsson T, Yu-Ping J, et al. Multiple sclerosis: cells secreting antibodies against myelin-associated glycoprotein are present in cerebrospinal fluid. Scand J Immunol 1991;33:73-9.

  9. Burns J, Littlefield K, Gill J, et al. Bacterial toxin superantigens activate human T lymphocytes reactive with myelin autoantigens. Ann Neurol 1992;32: 352-7.

  10. Kappler J, Kotzin B, Herron L, et al. V-Beta specific stimulation of human T cells by staphylococcal toxins. Science 1989; 244: 811--3

Immunology -- Animal Models

  1. Zamvil S, Steinman L. The T lymphocyte in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Ann Rev Immunol 1990;579-621.

  2. Moktarian F, MvFarlin D, Raine C. Adoptive transfer of myelin basic protein-sensitized T cells produces chronic relapsing demyelination disease in mice. Nature 1984;309: 356-8.

  3. Pettinelli C, McFarlin D. Adoptive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL/J mice after in vitro activation of lymph nodes cells by myelin basic protein: requirement for Lyt-1+2- T lymphocytes. J Immunol 1981; 127: 1420-4.

  4. Yamada M, Zurbriggen A, Fuinami RS. Pathogenesis of Theilerís murine encephalomyelitis virus. Adv Virus Res 1991;39: 291-320.

  5. Rabinowitz S, Lipton H. Cellular immunity in chronic Theilerís virus central nervous system infection. J Immunol 1976;117: 357-63.

  6. Clatch R, Lipton H, Miller S. Characterization of Theilerís murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-specific delayed hypersensitivity response to TMEV-induced demyelinating disease,correlation with clinical signs. J Immunol 1986;136: 920-27.

  7. Racke M, Dhib-Jalbut S, Cannella B, et al. Prevention and treatment of chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by transforming growth factor-beta 1. J Immunol; 1991; 146: 3012-7.

  8. Rose J, Lorberboum-Galski h, Fitgerald D, etal. Chimeric cytotoxins IL2-PE40 inhibits relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol 1991;32: 209-17.

  9. Acha-Orbea H, Mitchell D, Timmerman L, et al. Limited heterogeneity of T cell receptors fromlymphocytes mediating autoimmune encephalomyelitis allows specific immune intervention. Cell 1988;54: 263-73.

  10. Zaller D, Osman O, Kanagawa O, et al. Prevention and treatment of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by T-cel receptor V-beta-specific antibodies. J Exp. Med 1990;171: 1943-9.

  11. Vandenbark A, Hashim G, Offner H, Immunizations with synthetic T-cell receptor V-region peptide protects against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis Nature 1989: 341:541-4

  12. Sakai K, Zamvil SS, Mitchell DJ, et al. Prevention of experimental encephalomye;itis with peptides that block interaction of T-cells with MHC proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989:86: 9470-4.

  13. Yednock TA, Cannon C, Fritz L, et al. Prevention of experimental; autoimmune encephalomyelitis by antibodies against alpha4 beta1 integrin, Nature 1992;356:63.

  14. Cross Ah, Misko TP, Lin RF, et al. Aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL mice. J Clin Invest 1994; 93:2684-90.

Spinal Fluid

  1. Johnson KP, Nelson BT. Multiple sclerosis: diagnostic usefulness of cerebrospinal fluid. Arch Neurol 1977;2:425-31.

  2. Link H. Immunoglobulin abnormalities in the Guillain-Barre syndrome. J Neurol Sci 1973;18:11-23.

  3. Norrby E. Vandvik B. Relationship between measles virus-specific antibody activities and oligoclonal IgG in the central nervous system of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) 1975;162:63-72.


  1. Waksman B. Multiple sclerosis: relationship to a retrovirus? Nature 1989-337-559.

  2. Koprowski H, DeFreitas E, Harper M, et al. Multiple Sclerosis and human T-Cell lymphrotropic retroviruses. Nature 1985;318: 154-160.

  3. Reddy E, Sandberg-Wollheim M, Mettus R, et al. Amplification and molecular cloning of HTLV-I sequences from DNA of multiple sclerosis patients. Science 1989; 243: 529-533.

  4. Hauser S, Aubert C, Burks J, et al. The G and Brahic M analysis of human t-lymphotrophic virus sequences in multiple sclerosis tissue. Nature 1986;322: 176-178.

  5. Madden D, Mundon F, Tzan N, et al. Serologic studies of MS patients, controls and patients with other neurologic diseases: antibodies to HTLV-I, II, III. Neurology 1988;38: 81-84.

  6. Nishimura M, Adachi A, Maeda M, et al. Human T lymphotropic virus typweI may not be be associated with multiple sclerosis in Japan. J Immunol 1990;144: 1684-8.

  7. Bhagavati S, Ehrlich G, Kula R, et al. Detection of human T-cell lymphoma virus type I DNA and antigen in spinal fluid and blood of patients with chronic progressive myelopathy. N Engl J Med 1988;318: 1141-7.

  8. Murray R, Brown B, Brian D, et al. detection of coronavirus RNA and antigen in multiple sclerosis brain. Ann Neurol 1992;31:525-33.


  1. Newman NJ, Lessel S. Isolated pupil-sparing third nerve palsy as the presenting sign of multiple sclerosis.Arch Neurol 1990;47:817-8.

  2. Rizzo JF, Lessell S. Optic neuritis and ischemic optic neuropathy: overlapping clinical profiles. Arch Opthalmol. 1991; 109: 1668-72.

  3. Mathews WB. Clinical aspects. In: Mathew WB, ed. McAlpineís multiple sclerosis. 2nd ed. Singapore: Longman, 1991: 139-63.

  4. Zee DS. Nystagmus in multiple sclerosis. Bull Soc Belge Opthalmol 1983;208-I: 211-7.

  5. Barton JJS, Cox TA. Aquired pendular nystagmus in multiple sclerosis: clinical observation and the role of optic neuropathy. J Neurol Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1993; 56: 262-7.

Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis

  1. Anderson M, Alvarez-Cermeno J, Bernardi G, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: a consenus report. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994;57: 897-902

  2. Benow K, Fredman P, Wallin A, et al. formulas for the quantitation of intrathecal IgG production: their validity in the presence of blood-brain barrier damage and their utility in multiple sclerosis. J. Neurol Sci 1994; 121: 90-96.

  3. Poser C, Paty D, Scheinberg L, et al. New diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelinies for research protocols. Ann Neurol 1982; 13: 227-231.

  4. Giesser B, Kurtzberg D, Vaughan H, et al. Trimodal evoked potentials compared with magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 1987; 55: 281-284.

  5. Debaene A, Laveille J, Vion-Dury J, et al. Contribution of MRI tothe diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. J Neuroradiol 1986; 13: 1-10.

  6. National Multiple Sclerosis Society Working Group on Neuroimaging for the Medical Advisory Board. Use of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: statement. Neurology 1986; 36: 1575.

  7. Omerod I, Miller D, McDonald W, et al. The role of NMR imaging in the assessment of MS and isolated neurological lesions. Brain 1987; 110: 1579-1616.

  8. Fazekas F. Magnetic resonance signal abnormalities in asymptomatic individuals: their incidence and functional correlates. Eur Neurol 1989; 29: 164-168.

  9. Fazekas F, Offenbacher H, Fuchs S, et al. Criteria for an increased specificity of MRI interpretation in elderly subjects with suspected multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1988; 38: 1822-1825.

  10. Lechner H, Schmidt R, Bertha G, et al. Nuclear magnetic resonance image white matter lesions and risk factors for stroke in normal individuals. Stroke 1988; 19: 263-265.

  11. Miller DH, Ormerod IEC, Gibson A, et al. MRI brain scanning in patients with vasulitis: differentiation from multiple sclerosis. Neuroradiol 1987; 29: 226-231.

  12. Miller Dh, Kendall BE, Barter S,, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in central nervous system sarcoidosis. Neurology 1988; 38: 378-83.

  13. Al Kawi Mz, Bohlega S, Banna M. MRI findings in neuro-Behcetís disease. Neurology 1991; 41: 405-408.

  14. Offenbacher H, Frazekas F, Schmidt R, et al. Assessment of MRI criteria for a diagnosis of MS. Neurology 1993; 43: 905-909.

  15. Thompson AJ, Kermode Ag, MacManus DG, et al. Patters of disease activity in multiple sclerosis: A clinical and magnetic resonance imaging study. BMJ 1990;300: 631-634.

  16. Kidd D, Thorpe JW, Thompson, AJ, et al. Spinal Cord MRI using multi-array coils and fast spin-echo. Part 2. Findings in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1993; 43: 2632-2637.

  17. Schumacher G, Beebe G, Kibler R, et al. Problems of experimental trials of therapy in multiple sclerosis: Report by the panel on evaluation of experimental trials of therapy in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1993; 122: 552-68.

  18. Hoult J, Hewitt T. Influenzal encephalopathy and post-influenzal encephalitis. BMJ 1960; 1:1847.

  19. Rahn DW, Malawista SE. Lyme disease: recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. Ann Intern Med 1991; 114: 472-481

  20. Roman G, Schoenberg B, Madden D, et al. Human T-lymphocytes virus type I antibodies in the serum of patients with tropical spastic paraparesis in Seychelles. Arch Neurol 1987; 44: 605-608.

  21. International Study Group for Behcetís Disease: Criteria for diagnosis of Behcetís disease. Lancet 1990; 335: 1070-1090.

  22. Coker SB. The diagnosis of childhood neurodegenerative disorders presenting as dementia in adults. Neurology 1991; 41: 794-8.

  23. Menkes J. Heredodegenerative diseases. In: Menkes JH, ed. Textbook of child neurology. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1985: 123-168.

  24. Rizzo Jf III, Lessell S. Risk of developing multiple sclerosis after uncomplicated optic neuritis: A long-term prospective study. Neurology 1988; 38: 185-190.

  25. Jeffery DR, Mandler RN, Davis Le. Transverse myelitis: Retrospective analysis of 33 cases, with differentiation of cases associated with multiple sclerosis and parainfectious events. Arch Neurology 1993;50: 532-535.

  26. Ford B, Tampieri D, Francis G. Long-term follow up of acute partial transverse myelopathy. Neurology 1992; 42: 250-252.

  27. Miller Dh, Ormerod IEC, Rudge P, et al. Early risk of multiple sclerosis following isolated acute syndromes of the brainstem and spinal cord. Ann Neurology 1989;26: 635-639.

  28. Morrissey SP, Miller DH, Kendall BE, et al. Prognostic significance of brain MRI at presentation with a clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of MS--a five year follow up study. Brain 1993;116:135-46.

  29. Hainfellner J, Schmidbauer M, Schmulzmard E, Maier H, Budka H. Devicís neuromyelitis optica and Schilderís myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis. J. Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1992; 55: 1194-1196.


  1. Nelson D, McDowell F. The effects of induced hyperthermia on patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1988;38(suppl 1): 237.

  2. Sibley WA, Bamford Cr, Clark K. Clinical viral infections and multiple sclerosis. Lancet 1985;1: 1313-1315.

  3. Runmarker B, Andersen O. Prognostic factors in a multiple sclerosis incidence cohort with twenty-five years follow-up. Brain 1993; 116: 117-134.

  4. Kraft GH, Freal JE, Coryell JK, Hanana CL, Chitnis N. Multiple sclerosis: early prognostic guidelines. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1981;62:54-58.

  5. Kurtzke, Jf, Beebe Gw, Nagler B, Kurland Lt, Auth Tl. Studies on the natural history of multiple sclerosis: eight early prognostic features of the later course of the illness. J Chronic Dis 1977; 30: 819-30.

Exercise and Disability

  1. Kosich D, Molk B, Feeney J, et al. Cardiovascular testing and exercise prescription in multiple sclerosis patients. J Neurol Rehabil 1987;1: 167-170.

  2. Delisa J, Hammond M, Mikuhe M, Miller R. Multiple sclerosis. Part 1. Common physical disabilities and rehabilitation. Am Fam Physician 1985;32: 157-163.


  1. Poser S, Poser WP. Multiple sclerosis and gestation. Neurology 1983;331:1422-1447.

  2. Roullet E, Verdier-Taillefer M-H, Amarenco, et al. Pregnancy and multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study of 125 patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1993;56: 1062-1065.

  3. Sadovnick AD, Eisen K, Hasimoto SA, et al. Pregnancy and multiple sclerosis: a prospective study. Arch Neurol 1994;51: 1120-1124.

  4. Birk K, Rudick R. Pregnancy and multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 1986;43: 719-726

  5. Birk K, Sceltzer S, Ford C, Miller R, Rudnick R. The effect of pregnancy in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1988;38(suppl 1): 237.

Symptomatic Treatments

  1. Moreau T, Thorpe J, Miller D, et al. Preliminary evvidence from magnetic resonance imaging for reduction in disease activity after lymphocyte depletion in multiple sclerosis. Lancet 1994;344:298-301.

  2. Murray T. Amantadine therapy for fatique in multiple sclerosis. Can J Neurol Sci 1985; 12:251-254.

  3. Minden S, Oraw J, Reich P. Depression and multiple sclerosis. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1987 9 :426-434.

  4. Weinschenker BG, Penman M, Bass B, et al. A double blind, randomized crossover trail of pemoline in fatique associated with multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1992;42: 1468-1471.

  5. Shapiro RT. New advances in symptom management in multiple sclerosis. Clin Neuro Sci 1994;2:266-270.

  6. Davidoff R. Antispasticity drugs: mechanisma of action. Ann Neurology 1985;17:107-112.

  7. Penn RD. Intrathecal baclofen for spasticity of spinal origin: seven years of experience. J Neurology 1992:77 236-40.

  8. Compston DA, UK Tizanidine Study Group. Safety and efficancy of tizanidine in therapy of spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1994:44(suppl 1):A375.

  9. Blavais J. Management of bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1979;30:12-8.

  10. Chancellor MB, Blavais JG. Urological and Sexual problems in multiple sclerosis. Clin Neurosci 1994;2:189-195.

  11. Sonda LP, Mazo R, Chancellor MB. The role of yohimbine for the treatment of erectile impotence. J Sex Marital Ther. 1990;16:15-20.

  12. Schiffer RB, Herndon RM, Rudick RA. Treatment pf pathologic laughing and weeping with amitriptyline. N Engl J Med 1985;312:1480-1482.

  13. Mackenzie T, Popkin M. Suicide in the medical patient. Int J Psychiatry Med 1987;17:3-22.

  14. Bozek CB, Kastukoff LF, Wright JM, et al. A controlled trail of ioniazid therapy for action tremor in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 1987;234:36-39.

  15. Moulin D, Foley K, Ebers g. Pain syndromes in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1988;38:1830-1834.

  16. Rao SM, Leo GJ, Bernardin L, Unversagt F. Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Part 1. Frequency, patterns, and prediction. Neurology 1991;41:685-691.

Current Directions in MS Research

  1. Fujinami RS, Oldstone MBA. Amino acid homology between the encephalitogenic site of myelin basic protein and virus: a mechanism for autoimmunity. Science 1985;230:1043-1045.

  2. Wucherpfennig KW, Strominger JL. Molecular mimicry in T cell-mediated autoimminity: viral peptides activate human T cell clones specific for myelin basic protein. Cell 1995;80:695-705.

  3. Scheipers C, Vandenberghn R, Van Heckle P, et al. FDG-PET, MRI AND NMR spectroscopy of normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1995;45(suppl 4):A282-3.

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