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SEMINAR 4 :   OVARIAN TUMORS
A.  B1.  B2.  B3.  C.  D.  E.  F.  F1. 

Benign Ovarian Neoplasm Review

Common non-neoplastic benign OVARIAN TUMORS include the following:

Follicle cysts.
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Follicle cysts. Here is a benign cyst in an ovary. This is probably a follicular cyst. Occasionally such cysts may reach several centimeters in size and, if they rupture, can cause abdominal pain.
Credits: C. Matthew Peterson, M.D.

Corpus luteum cyst
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Corpus luteum cyst. The corpus luteum secretes progesterone which induces a secretory endometrium. It normally regresses in 14 days unless it is rescued by increasing concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin from a pregnancy.
Credits: Alan B.P. N

Mature cystic teratoma
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Mature cystic teratoma (dermoid). Teratomas, often called dermoid tumors, represent 25% of all benign neoplasms. The most common elements are components of stratified squamous epithelium, hence their name: dermoid tumor.
Credits: Alan B.P. Ng

Serous cystadenoma
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Serous cystadenoma. These tumors comprise 20% of all ovarian neoplasms. The epithelium is a single layer of regular cuboidal epithelium, with basal nuclei and rare mitoses.
Credits: Alan B.P. Ng

Mucinous cystadenoma
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Mucinous cystadenoma. These tumors comprise 20% of all neoplasms, and 50% of ovarian neoplasms found in women less than 20 years of age. They are frequently multiloculated. The favored hypothesis for their origin is metaplastic surface epithelium as they have a predominance of endocervical gland type epithelium.
Credits: Alan B.P. Ng

Endometrioma
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Endometrioma. This is a section through an ovary to demonstrate several irregular hemorrhagic areas of endometriosis. Sometimes the blood is darker and gives the foci of endometriosis the gross appearance of "powder burns". Typical locations for endometriosis include: ovaries, uterine ligaments, rectovaginal septum, pelvic peritoneum, and laparotomy scars. Endometriosis may even be found at more distant locations such as appendix and vagina.
Credits: C. Matthew Peterson, M.D.

Pregnancy luteoma.                                                                        
          
Theca Lutein cyst
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Theca-lutein cysts. Theca lutein cysts are dominated by theca interna cells. Grossly the cut surface of the ovary is often partly yellow and partly hemorrhagic. Hyperplasia of the theca interna cells is the predominant characteristic. It is believed that these cysts are the result of excessive stimulation of the theca interna by high levels of circulating hCG. Conditions which high levels of hCG are found are multiple pregnancies, gonadotropin therapy for infertility, and trophoblastic disease.
Credits: Edward C. Klatt, M.D.

The most common cause of bilateral ovarian enlargement is sclerocystic ovaries associated with PCOS


Other non-neoplastic solid benign tumors include:

Fibroma.
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Fibroma. This is the cut surface of a fibroma. Such neoplasms slowly enlarge over the years.
Credits: C. Matthew Peterson, M.D.

Adenofibroma
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Adenofibroma. Dense,fibrous connective tissue with interspersed glandular spaces
Credits: Edward C. Klatt, M.D.

Ovary, Brenner tumor
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Ovary, Brenner tumor. Solid and partially cystic epithelial nests are surrounded by a stroma composed of bundles of tightly-packed spindle shaped cells. The epithelial cells are polygonal and of the squamoid type, with pale, eosinophilic cytoplasm and oval nuclei having distinct nuclei and longitudinal grooving, a "coffee-ben appearance.
Credits: C. Matthew Peterson, M.D.

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